Crop circles is a term used to describe patterns created by the
flattening of crops such as wheat, barley, canola, rye, corn, linseed and soy.
Examples can be found world wide. Various hypotheses have been offered to
explain their formation, ranging from the naturalistic to the paranormal.
Naturalistic explanations include man-made hoaxes or geological anomalies, while
paranormal explanations include formation by UFOs. A 2000 study into circle
hoaxing concluded that 80 percent of UK circles were definitely man-made (Spignesi,
Stephen J. (2003) "Crop Circles: Signs of Contact", Career Press, P154).
In general, the early formations (1970–2000) seemed to be based on the
principles of sacred geometry. Later formations, those occurring after 2000,
appear to be based on other principles, natural sciences and mathematics
designs, including fractals. Many crop circles now have fine intricate detail,
regular symmetry and careful composition. Elements of three-dimensionality
became more frequent, culminating in spectacular images of cube-shaped