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World Heritage in Peru. You can also "zoom in" a region on the map by
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Archaeological Zone (1986).
The Chimu Kingdom, with Chan Chan as its
capital, reached its apogee in the 15th century, not long before falling
to the Incas. The planning of this huge city, the largest in
pre-Columbian America, reflects a strict political and social strategy,
marked by the city's division into nine 'citadels' or 'palaces' forming
Chavin (Archaeological Site) (1985) The archaeological site of
Chavin gave its name to the culture that developed between 1500 and 300
B.C. in this high valley of the Peruvian Andes. This former place of
worship is one of the earliest and best-known pre-Columbian sites. Its
appearance is striking, with the complex of terraces and squares,
surrounded by structures of dressed stone, and the mainly zoomorphic
City of Cuzco (1983). Situated in the Peruvian Andes, Cuzco
developed, under the Inca ruler Pachacutec, into a complex urban centre
with distinct religious and administrative functions. It was surrounded
by clearly delineated areas for agricultural, artisan and industrial
production. When the Spaniards conquered it in the 16th century, they
preserved the basic structure but built Baroque churches and palaces
over the ruins of the Inca city.
Historic Centre of Lima (1988).
Although severely damaged by earthquakes, this 'City of the Kings' was,
until the middle of the 18th century, the capital and most important
city of the Spanish dominions in South America. Many of its buildings,
such as the Convent of San Francisco (the largest of its type in this
part of the world), are the result of collaboration between local
craftspeople and others from the Old World.
Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa
(2000).The historic centre of Arequipa, built in volcanic sillar
rock, represents an integration of European and native building
techniques and characteristics, expressed in the admirable work of
colonial masters and Criollo and Indian masons. This combination of
influences is illustrated by the city's robust walls, archways and
vaults, courtyards and open spaces, and the intricate Baroque decoration
of its facades.
Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana (1994). Located
in the arid Peruvian coastal plain, some 400 km south of Lima, the
geoglyphs cover about 450 sq. km. These lines, which were scratched on
the surface of the ground between 500 B.C. and A.D. 500, are among
archaeology's greatest enigmas because of their quantity, nature, size
and continuity. The geoglyphs depict living creatures, stylized plants
and imaginary beings, as well as geometric figures several kilometres
Huascarán National Park (1985). Situated in the Cordillera
Blanca, the world's highest tropical mountain range, Mount Huascarán
rises to 6,768 m above sea-level. The deep ravines watered by numerous
torrents, the glacial lakes and the variety of the vegetation make it a
site of spectacular beauty. It is the home of such species as the
spectacled bear and the Andean condor.
Manú National Park (1987). This huge 1.5 million-ha park has
successive tiers of vegetation rising from 150 to 4,200 m above
sea-level. The tropical forest in the lower tiers is home to an
unrivalled variety of animal and plant species. Some 850 species of
birds have been identified and rare species such as the giant otter and
the giant armadillo also find refuge there. Jaguars are often sighted in
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (1983). Machu Picchu stands
2,430 m above sea-level, in the middle of a tropical mountain forest, in
an extraordinarily beautiful setting. It was probably the most amazing
urban creation of the Inca Empire at its height; its giant walls,
terraces and ramps seem as if they have been cut naturally in the
continuous rock escarpments. The natural setting, on the eastern slopes
of the Andes, encompasses the upper Amazon basin with its rich diversity
of flora and fauna.
Río Abiseo National Park (1990). The park was created in 1983 to
protect the fauna and flora of the rainforests that are characteristic
of this region of the Andes. There is a high level of endemism among the
fauna and flora found in the park. The yellow-tailed woolly monkey,
previously thought extinct, is found only in this area. Research
undertaken since 1985 has already uncovered 36 previously unknown
archaeological sites at altitudes of between 2,500 and 4,000 m, which
give a good picture of pre-Inca society.
Sacred City of Caral-Supe (2009). The 5000-year-old 626-hectare archaeological site of The Sacred City of Caral-Supe is situated on a dry desert terrace overlooking the green valley of the Supe river. It dates back to the Late Archaic Period of the Central Andes and is the oldest centre of civilization in the Americas.